Bongard Pattern Recognition Puzzles/Problems

The original 100 problems/puzzles were created by the Russian Scientist of Human Cognition, Mikhail Bongard

in the Appendix of his book of the same name, Bongard Pattern Recognition (circa 1967).


Cognitive Science deals with understanding how humans think, remember, reason, and learn.

It can relate to consciousness and intellectual activities such as language acquisition and mathematics, etc.

Cognitive Sciences led to research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Robotics:

How to make machines with sensory capabilities (using mechanical and electronic sensors) and productive capabilities

involving tools, manipulations, and manufacturing, etc. Studying Human Cognition led to studying Machine Cognition

which led to the development of Androids: a mobile robot usually with a human form.

If this sounds like a bunch of Science Fiction nonsense, take a deep breath and read on...

Science and Technology can be great benefits to Society, but they also can be used in very destructive ways:

The annual Nobel Prize for Peace was created by Mr. Alfred Nobel, who was the scientist who discovered in his laboratory

how to make dynamite; which Industries and Nations then used to make explosives and bombs.

(excerpt from Wikipedia: "Alfred Nobel was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer.

He is the inventor of dynamite. Nobel also owned Bofors, which he had redirected from its previous role as primarily

an iron and steel producer to a major manufacturer of cannon and other armaments. Nobel held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous.

Before his death, in his last will, he used his enormous fortune to institute the Nobel Prizes in Sciences; and with some conscience as well, the Nobel Prize for Peace (on Earth and Goodwill towards Humanity.)

The synthetic element nobelium was named after him.")

Albert Einstein and other Atomic Scientists from the World War II Era, had to advise President Roosevelt and his Chief National Security Advisors about the imminent invention and use of the first Atomic Bombs, based on the Science of radioactive elements and their nuclear chain reactions. The inevitable result was the Nuclear Arms Race (Armaments and Weapons of Mass Destruction) between the then Soviet Union and the United States.

Now(2011), Machine Cognition Systems used to manufacture "Androids" have led to the the commercial production of "Actroids" by a Corporation in Japan. (and now, in 2017... I assume worldwide.)

Here is the Wikipedia article with photographs and other links to the "New Now" Ethical Issues involved for Society...


An "Actroid is a humanoid robot with strong graphic human likeness that can mimic such lifelike functions such as blinking, speaking, and breathing."


And if you start to play around and/or study the Bongard Pattern Recognition Puzzles/Problems, which I encourage you to do,

please be aware of how Science and Mathematics and Technology can quickly lead to some Major Developments in Society

"as we know it" and "in the near future" which is "Now"...

See the Page "Artificial Intelligence

AI" and the two fascinating article-links to WIRED Magazine and DARPA...=

"Knowlege is Power." and "In Dreams begin Responsibilities."

For me, "Geometry is the opposite of boring... It is the Pursuit of Life itself..."

Sincerely, Allen...


And here is a link to one of the Leaders of AI Research and Philosophy, back in 1995: Douglas R. Hofstader:

"On seeing A's and seeing As" (He is Totally Awesome!)

a not-so-easy article to read thoroughly... but very valuable to skim and focus on selected parts:

his Pictures and Charts of alphabets and letters sections and research diagrams etc.

and then especially his conclusion section, where his article's 'mysterious title' is wonderfully explained. :-)

A as in Allen... :-)